Down Home with The Band:
Country-Western Music and Rock
by David Emblidge
From Ethnomusicology, Vol. 20, No. 3. (Sep., 1976), pp. 541-552.
Published at The Band web site with permission from the author.
The text is copyrighted, please do not copy or redistribute.
People treat us so much more intellectually and so much heavier than
what we ever believe for a moment we are, and we feel kind of
foolish. I wish it was magic upon magic, but it's no big
thing. There's no point in writing about it... . Let's just listen to
it (Anonymous 1970:44).
Robbie Robertson of "The Band"
If in the world
view of rock in the late 1960's the Beatles were the dreamweavers and
the Rolling Stones the Satanic urge; if Joplin was the soul and
Hendrix the genital thrust; if Blood, Sweat and Tears were the
technicians and Dylan the tortured conscience, then The Band was the
memory. This group has a sense of historical roots that yields
nostalgia without sentimentality, humor without biting satire, and a
diversity of styles without a superficiality of skill. They concern
themselves with ideas, people, settings, and a view of time unlike
almost anyone else in the rock field.
Country-western music, one of
the most popular forms of entertainment in the United States, was,
with the blues, part of the original inspiration of the first rock and
roll of the 1950's. Elvis Presley was a country-western and blues
singer long before he broke new ground with his rock songs. Innumerable rock performers have been influenced by country-western styles,
but few have actually identified with or at least expressed a
deep-felt respect for the people and subculture that produced this
musical tradition. The Band, however, is an outstanding exception.
Band's songs, usually in a loose narrative form, rarely concern urban
experience. Instead the farmer, the cross-country trucker, the small
town carnival or medicine show of years past are their most typical
subjects. From album to album, their point of view about these topics
has evolved. In The Band (1969) their approach is generally through
the memory of various fictional narrators.
Stage Fright followed after
nearly a year of touring; it reveals the group's increasing feeling of
confinement in the roles of performers. In the title song "Stage
Fright" the entertainer seems almost lost in time because he is caught
in a spotlight trap that functions like a treadmill. Then came
in which we hear the line "run away, run away, it's a restless age."
John Landau sees this impulse not as an index of social
irresponsibility but of future shock. Many of the songs in the album
(and elsewhere in their
repertoire) suggest a "tinge of extinction," a growing awareness of
rapid, unwanted, unprepared for obsolescence of skilled men and
values. The main theme of Cahoots is a dying carnival run entirely by
performers. The tone is one of regret and sorrow rather than of fury
or anger. "The Last of the Blacksmiths" treats the theme of
extinction with the rhetorical question: "how can you replace human
hands?" The negative answer is all too clear. The song also reveals
the composer's own fears of passing out of use: "frozen fingers at the
keyboard, could ths be the reward?" (Landau 1972:114-119).
all The Band's music there is an implied respect for tradition and a
reverence for inherited experience. Most rock stars in the late 1960's
created as part of their act an image of alienation from the urban,
middle class mainstream. Their costumes tell the story: Hendrix the
dandy, Joplin the sequined sex machine, Jagger the court jester in top
hat and rooster tail, the Beatles in a whole wardrobe of put-on
costumes. But not so with The Band. Their album jackets and song
folios reveal five men in regular, undistinguished, plain colored
shirts, perhaps a tweed sportcoat on one, an unadorned leather vest on
another. Hair of moderate length, beards and moustaches trimmed and
neat: nothing to offend, nothing to outrage. In fact on
Music From Big
Pink (their first album, 1968), they posed en masse among a crowd of
family and neighbors and captioned the picture "next of kin."
record production techniques reflect essentially the same feeling
about adornment and ornamentation. Big Pink was recorded in the
basement of their rented house in Woodstock, N.Y. The Band was
produced in a studio they built in a rented house in Hollywood. These
settings say something significant about their music. It has a
homemade quality that is noticeable in its simplicity. What most rock
stars saw as new avenues for creativity (in sophisticated recording
technology), The Band considered unnecessary. The group's main
engineered The Band himself.l
explanation for these attitudes and procedures lies in the group's
accumulated experience of small town life, travel, work and family
traditions. All but one of them are Canadian born. In 1959 Robertson
left Toronto at age 16 and headed south for the places that blues and
early rock lyrics talked about.
Rick Danko, son of a tobacco farmer
near Simcoe, Ontario, worked as a butcher's helper but left for the
music road also.
Garth Hudson's father was a farm inspector near
London, Ontario and
Richard Manuel's father a mechanic in nearby
Levon Helm of Marvell, Arkansas (pop. 1200) worked on a
cotton farm when not in school and, like the others, saw music as a
means of escape from sweaty drudgery. They joined together in the
early 1960's; by now (1976) they have been together over a decade
The Band has had two remarkably different
musical mentors. Canadian rock star Ronnie Hawkins, famous for his
country-western and rock and roll), carried the group with him for
several years, during which they were known as The Hawks. In 1965 Bob
Dylan asked them to tour with him. Dylan was then at the turning point
between an unamplified folk style and the electrically powered sound
of folk-rock. He had also come to see that the social concerns of folk
protest lyrics could be expressed through rock. The Hawks became
Dylan's band and then "The Band" as they backed him through this phase
of his career.
Four of the five men in the group sing well enough to
take the lead. Together they play over fifteen instruments. Helm's
experience as a drummer began in competition at county fairs. Danko
and his brothers sang at Saturday night community musical
events. Hudson studied organ at Western Ontario University and worked
his way through the Bach chorales. Although Robertson is the group's
main lyricist, they are all remarkably well balanced in musical talent
and apparently uninterested in competing for the spotlight. Thus, they
remain a tight, cooperative unit characterized by serious professionalism.
Robertson has said that their sense of roots is very
loosely defined. They take past experience seriously, their own and
what they know of history. They are voracious music listeners, and
their composition process is often informally communal. Trying to
classify their style satisfactorily is like flying a kite on a
windless day: nothing specific catches hold and stays up very
long. One hears everything from Anglican church hymns to Scottish
reels, ragtime, and folk ballads. A1 Kooper, a founder of Blood, Sweat
and Tears, said he hears The Beach Boys, Hank Williams, The
Association, Dylan, The Beatles, and still other influences in The
Band's songs -- in other words, further hybridization (Kooper
Dylan's contribution was significant in this way: his own
determination to write songs of poetic intensity rather than the
predictable banality found in many popular hits gave The Band a model
of a self-respecting bard. Hawkins had played "rockabilly":
country-western music ornamented with the harder beat and greater
volume of basic 1950's rock.
Defining country-western music is an
elusive task in itself. Country-western songs usually rely on a verse
scheme of AABB or ABBA, but more emphasis is placed on fitting the
lyrics to a
34 metrical structure.
A song's title (often a clever
punchline) emerges in a standard two- or four-line chorus after verse
one. Verse two follows, then a bridge, then verse three and a final
chorus. Another common form is a rambling narrative with an ironic
final line. However, these are not the elements of country-western
that have most influenced The Band. Their songs are more varied in
form (although the verse/chorus combination is often retained) and are
rarely dependent on witty titles or clever final lines.
basic instrumentation however is definitely country-western. Guitar (acoustic, electric and steel),
mandolin, banjo, fiddle and bass are the core country-western
instruments, and The Band uses most of them in country style, e.g.,
fast-moving square dance fiddle, bass like the old tub bass,
moderately loud guitar providing basic rhythmic support. Sometimes a
harmonica evokes feelings of sadness and nostalgia. A wide range of
other instruments (such as brass, organ and piano) also creates a more
complex texture than that of country-western music.
are the thematic concerns of the songs. Alan Lomax describes southern
rural musical style (from which country-western is derived) as a
product of "security patterns" in white society. The social function
of the music is to give the listener a sense of security by
symbolizing his birthplace, childhood, religion, community, courtship,
and work. In dealing with these concerns, country-western plays an
essentially conservative function by reflecting and preserving the
vision of society held by its audience. Many of these conventional
country-westem themes are also themes of The Band.
The vocal style of
The Band seems to be a combination of inheritance and
originality. Their voices often strain, nasally, towards the upper
reaches of their ranges, yet they never exceed a comfortable level of
volume. This pinched and at times incisive tone is characteristic of
Anglo-American folk singing (Mellers 1972:398).2
frequently contains a deliberate "space"; this is achieved by using
combinations of a highly pitched voice (at times almost a falsetto)
with a much lower alto or bass. This produces a stark, "incomplete"
texture. Sometimes the voices are inaudible, suggesting that the
instrumental lines are to take precedence. The most prominant aspect
of their rhythmic characteristics is that the drums are on an equal
footing with the voices and other instruments. Many of their songs
"chug" or "rumble" along in a jagged, irregular fashion. While Garth
Hudson fully exploits the sound capabilities of his electric keyboard
instruments, the distortion and feedback techniques of acid rock are
alien to the style of The Band. Except for the instrumental piece
"Genetic Method" (in Rock of Ages) which features Hudson on organ and
which involves Ivesian quotations from Anglican hymns and "Auld Lang
Syne," they have avoided the improvisational experiments of avantgarde
rock. Quiet, consistent, and exacting in their musicianship, The Band
is stylistically conservative (Gillett 1 972: 307).
The group's most
representative album is entitled The Band (Capitol, STAO 132,
Nov. 1969); an examination of three of its songs will serve to
illustrate the stylistic and thematic concerns which recur throughout
"Rag Mama Rag -- by Robbie Robertson
"Rag Mama Rag" is a
man's comic story about a woman whose coyness in the face of blatant
attempts at seduction takes the form of a habitual tendency to "rag" (one meaning is to tease; another
is to play this type of music) rather than cooperate. It is replete
with verbal allusions to the country setting and working class milieu
of the story. For example, the hyperbole involved in the joke about
"letting the railroad scratch his back" is typical of the tall-tale
tradition in American folk narratives. The hail stones beating on the
roof (which we can easily imagine to be corrugated metal) and the 100
proof bourbon suggest the hills of Appalachia. There is also a sense
of woodsy isolation, with no proximate neighbors -- "It's you and me and
the telephone." The humor relies in part on good-natured deprecation,
as when the singer tells her to bring her "skinny little body back
home"; there is a clever use of nonsense to enhance the general
feeling of confusion: "I ask about your turtle/and you ask about the
weather/Well I can't jump a hurdle/and we can't get together."
Rag mama rag
I can't believe it's true
Rag mama rag
A-what did you do?
I crawled up to the railroad track
Let the four-nineteen scratch my
I ask about your turtle
and you ask about the weather
can't jump a hurdle
and we can't get together
We could be relaxin'
in my sleepin' bag
But all you wanna do for me mama
is a rag mama rag
There's nowhere to go
Rag mama rag
Come on resin up the bow
Where do ya roam?
Rag mama rag
bring your skinny little body
It's dog eat dog and cat eat mouse
You can rag mama rag all
over my house
Hailstones beatin' on the roof
The bourbon is one
It's you and me and the telephone
Our destiny is quite
We don't need to sit and brag
All we gotta do is
rag, mama rag
(V2 and V7 omitted)
The music provides a good illustration of The Band's instrumental
versatility. Country style fiddle accompanies the vocalist on the
melody; a modified form of ragtime piano appears which serves to
create an analogue to Mama's ramblings around the shack. The latter is
particularly evident at the very end of the song, when the piano plays
alone. Here the ragtime rhythmic pattern emerges clearly; a
the left hand is set against a syncopated, partially improvised figure
in the right. This form is the basis for the entire song, with its
"stop-and-go" feeling. The guitar and tuba or trombone assist the
accompaniment figure of the left hand. Classic ragtime often uses a
tight rondo-like form, but this does not appear here. Some verses flow
easily into one another, while others feel somewhat disjointed. This
interplay between feelings of arrival and non-arrival, anticipation
and resolution appears in many of The Band's songs. By displacing
accents they create a jerky, awkward feeling, in this song enhancing
the confusion of the relationship described in the lyric. Other Band
songs similar to "Rag..." are "Across the Great Divide" and their
biggest commercial hit, "Up On Cripple Creek."
"The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down" -- by Robbie Robertson
This is one of the key historically
focused "memory" songs The Band has produced. Robertson's knack for
compressed storytelling derives from his tendency to write
cinematically, giving just enough vivid detail to facilitate
visualization. He is interested in history not as a record of great
accomplishments by famous people, but rather as a memory in the mind
of the common, anonymous person whose life is rarely examined by
historians. In this story, Robertson deals with the pain experienced
by a man remembering the struggle of doing his own work and minding
his own business, while at the same time finding his family, community
and self caught up in the Civil War. His name is Virgil Caine. Though
he vainly protests the injustice of the war's slaughter of "the very
best" young men, he refrains from judgment. This is characteristic of
Robertson's sense of history; he is far more concerned with mundane,
noncomittal feelings than with taking sides in a moral debate. In the
music of The Band there is none of the strident, angry
self-righteousness that appears in other rock music. On the contrary,
this song conveys an old idea, that of respect for tradition and hard
Virgil Caine is the name,
and I served on the Danville
'Ti1 Stoneman's Cavalry came
and tore up the tracks again.
the winter of sixty-five,
we were hungry, just barely alive.
the tenth, Richmond had fell;
it's a time I remember, oh, so well.
The night they drove old
And the bells were ringing,
The night they drove old Dixie
And the people were singing.
La, la, la, la, la, la,
la, la, la, la, la, la, la, la, la
Back with my wife in Tennessee
When one day she called to me
"Virgil,quick, come see:
Robert E. Lee!"
Now, I don't mind choppin' wood
And I don't care if
the money's no good,
Ya take what ya need and ya leave the rest
they should never have taken
The very best.
R2 same as R1
father before me
I will work the land.
And like my brother above me
Who took a rebel stand.
He was just eighteen,
proud and brave,
Yankee laid him in his grave.
I swear by the mud below my feet,
can't raise a Caine back up
When he's in defeat.
R3 same as R1
R4 same as R1
The lead singer's voice is strained and nasal throughout, as
though to suggest the sound of weeping. The refrain displays harmony
typical of The Band; voices strain toward the upper reaches of the
singers' ranges, entering and leaving the texture at surprising
places. Their characteristic stratification between high-and
low-pitched voices is also evident. The slow tempo suggests a feeling
of worn-out, plodding fatigue which relates logically to the mental
and physical strain exposed in the lyrics. The distant, solitary
harmonica used in the second and third verses is an appropriate sound
for a song of memory and lament. Even the faint trumpet entering with
the final chorus evokes its own pathetic irony. Reminiscent of martial
calls to action and regal in tone, it reminds the listener of the
honor and pride at stake in Dixie's futile stand.
King Harvest (Has Surely Come)" -- by Robbie Robertson
Songs like "Rockin Chair" and "When
You Awake" reveal The Band's empathy for the aged and a respect for
their special perspective on life as opposed to many rock
groups. Similarly, people who labor at menial and undramatic tasks are
given sympathetic, even honorific treatment by The Band. A case in
point is "King Harvest."
Gleason has said that the songs in The Band strike him as a sound track
for James Agee's Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (Gleason 1971:472). In
"King Harvest," the music is deliberately sparse and narrow in its
range of power and volume, reinforcing the images of static, stagnant
life in poverty on a southern dirt farm. A second version with a
bolstered horn section and louder dynamic levels appeared in Rock of
Ages. This more aggressive treatment musically reinforces the strong
feelings of frustration and hope expressed in the words. In either
version, it is one of The Band's most skillful compositions; its
texture is delicately varied while its lyric tells an all too credible
story, evoking poignant emotions.
Corn in the fields,
to the rice when the wind blows 'cross the water.
King Harvest has
I work for the union
'cause she's so good to me,
bound to come out on top,
that's where she said I should be.
hear every word the boss may say,
For he's the one who hands me down
Looks like this time I'm gonna get to stay,
I'm a union man,
now, all the way.
The smell of the leaves,
From the magnclia trees
in the meadow.
King Harvest has surely come.
Dry summer, then comes
which I depend on most of all.
Hey, rainmaker, can't you hear the
Please let these crops grow tall.
Long enough I've been up on
And it's plain to see I've nothin to show.
I'm glad to pay
those union dues,
Just don't judge me by my shoes.
Scarecrow and a
Pretty soon a carnival on the edge of town.
has surely come.
Last year, this time, wasn't no joke,
My whole barn
went up in smoke.
My horse, Jethro, well, he went mad,
And I can't
ever remember things bein' that bad.
Then here come a man with a paper
Tellin' us our hard times are about to end.
And then, if they
don't give us what we like,
He said, "Men, that's when you gotta go on
Corn in the fields,
Listen to the rice when the wind blows
'cross the water.
King Harvest has surely come.
The problem described here in a tightly compressed
narrative, with the cinematic quality so characteristic of Robertson's
writing, could have taken place any time within the last forty
years. Despite its southern setting, its thematic concerns are
relevant to Blacks, Whites, Chicanos, and others who have worked the
land anywhere as migrants or sharecroppers. At the same time, it is a
song for those on the outside of this agrarian world. If ever The Band
waxes didactic, it is in choosing the textual content. In singing of
this farmer's plight they direct a call for sympathetic understanding
to their predominately urban, affluent audience. There is food for
thought in the lyric: the farmer's dream of success after long
travail; the depth of his sensitivity to nature; the focused energy of
his self-respect; the possible naiveté of his trust in the union that
advertises itself as a panacea.
The music has several very affecting
qualities. In the refrain, the harmony is closer than usual and in a
lower tessitura. The high wailing nasal strain is replaced by a deep
throated, chesty sound. Extra-musical images (i.e. the delicate scent
of magnolia trees) are conveyed by such devices as a reduction of the
singers' volume. The lead singer obviously feels no need to shout to
express the farmer's integrity and determination. Striking use of
textural contrast can be found between the first two lines of each
verse and the last few lines, with subsequent bridge, of the preceding
verse. The final lines of the verses employ heavy, distinct accents on
the beats; this metric emphasis is maintained in the bridge, with the
addition of the wa-wa pedal of the electric organ. The rhythmic
support is abruptly terminated when the following verse begins; the
contrast is most effective.
The stylistic devices manifest in "King
Harvest" summarize the essence of the music of The Band -- each musical
or textural element is clear enough to be appreciated on its own, yet
all work together coherently to produce an overwhelming aesthetic
Why has The Band's focus on rural and small town working class
life been of interest to its predominantly urban and suburban student
audience? And why, while so much of rock is intensely present-minded
or dreamily speculative about the future, has The Band's backward look
in time had such great appeal? One theory that produces some
substantial answers td these questions relies on a distinction made by
Leo Marx between two kinds of pastoralism (Marx 1967:5-11).
argument derives from abundant evidence that there is a yearning among
urbanized, industrialized Americans to escape from the city's maze and
into the rural wilds. This craving for escape pervades our whole
culture -- from cigarette and beer ads to legislative biases in favor of
the farm bloc, and is manifest even in our classic
literature. Therefore, it is no wonder that it should appear in our popular songs. In some forms,
grouped under the rubric of "sentimental pastoralism," this yearning
celebrates a happy, uncritical embrace of all things natural, wild and
"countrified." These qualities are perceived as manifestations of
mother nature's benign simplicity, as opposed to the sticky web of
problems in the urban context.
Marx relies heavily on Freud's analysis
of this desire for escape. Freud concludes that the "pastoral
instinct" reflects a psychic need for freedom. Unable to find release
from constraints upon instinctual energies imposed by urban business
and industry, people fantasize their escape from repressive
conditions. Opposed to this sentimental view is a more sophisticated,
"complex" one, expressed most effectively by our best writers -- among
them Cooper, Thoreau, Melville, Faulkner, Frost, and Hemingway. Their
reactions to this "pastoral urge" differ from those of the masses in
several important ways. It is not sufficient for them merely to
escape, in fantasy, to a happy time in the country. Rather, they
emphasize the threat posed to nature when the "machine-mentality"
characteristic of industrialization is turned loose on the rural
wilds. To them, uncontrolled technology is the "demon in the works,"
raping the land. In addition to this defense of nature's vulnerable
beauty, they explore the violence and loneliness of the wilderness and
country; they qualify the sentimentalists' benign view of nature and
country life by pointing out the limitations of that idealized
vision. Thus, their focus is upon the tenuous relationship "civilized"
man must have with "untamed" nature. Their concern is to maintain a
delicate balance between use and misuse while they examine minds
negotiating between these two visions, neither of them idealized.
music of The Band appeals to some people simply because of its
"country" flavor; thus some of their fans are among the
sentimentalists Marx describes. If, however, we consider The Band's
background and examine their lyrics, we see a clearly unidealized
pastoral past. There is plenty of good humor in the ill-fated romances
they recount; yet they also treat the pain, suffering, loneliness and
hard work inherent in rural life. They recognize the complexities of
country life in the same manner as do those who view the city as a
labyrinth of frustration. In view of their attention to the dark side
of rural life, their references to the salving beauties of nature
become all the more poignant, as in "King Harvest's" line: "Listen to
the rice as the wind blows 'cross the water."
The Band's music is not
at all pro-revolutionary as were Marxist labor songs in the 1930's, nor
is it directly critical of mainstream mores. The Band is never
deliberately outrageous as are the Rolling Stones. The Beatles' satire
and the philosophical queries of Bob Dylan are also outside their
style. Their songs do argue implicitly, however, the case for
straight-forward, sincere compassion and empathy. Taken seriously,
they suggest a necessity for the
urban listener, unfamiliar with country life, to retool his machinery
of fantasy and conscious thought. A change in perspective is necessary
if he is to realize that the pastoral, hillbilly, hoedown, ragtime
life is not always good times around the still. Authentic
country-western music, like the rural blues, reflects the troubles of
country people as well as celebrates their moments of contentment.3
The Band's music is consistent with these traditions, yet its
significance is different because its impact is directed to a different
segment of the urban popular music audience.
I feel sympathetic
connections between songs of The Band and books such as Harrington's
The Other America (on unrecognized poverty) and de Beauvoir's The
Coming of Age (on neglect of the elderly). In concentrating on human
frailty and the passing away of living things, The Band is the Andrew
Wyeth of rock. It is his genius to capture the process of aging and
weathering, to disclose the ironic beauty of decay. Values associated
with a sensibility like this one seem fundamentally necessary and
healthy to a more humane society.
Two other aspects of The Band's
style set it off from the mainstream of American culture and much of
rock subculture. The first is the group's intense concentration on
professionalism, on the pursuit of perfection in its craft. Even in
Rock of Ages, recorded live at a concert, the music does not require
"touching-up" by engineers; the performance is tight and
disciplined. The music is highly rationalized, rejecting the Dionysian
chaos of acid rock. Most impressive, though, is the way its
professionalism slaps at the worst aspects of popular
culture. Incompetence, planned obsolescence and bland mediocrity
abound in production decisions and consumer tastes. The pursuit of
easy, unfulfilling pleasure accompanies the tendency to scorn exacting
work. Through all of this, The Band represents a clear vindication of
A final question: What is implied by the fact
that this group is so uncharismatic, so unconcerned with a
self-serving, marketable mythology or with a shocking display of
anti-bourgeois behavior? A possible answer is that the music itself is
attraction enough for a large part of the rock audience. To The Band,
the deliberate theatricality of much rock is like the icing on the
cake -- an enrichment, but not the staple food. The function of rock
frequently has been to supply a pantheon of heroes who quench thirsts
unrecognized by other institutions; its pluralism of style has
apparently created a niche for the unadorned humility of The
It is true, however, that their album, Rock of Ages
(1972), is a far more complex experiment, since it is a recording of
live concert performances with a supplementary horn section. This
gives their music a much brighter and louder sound than the five Band
members alone produce. Several of the songs from The Band are also in
Rock of Ages, and it is well worth listening to both albums. The
concert album also involved a more
complex mixing process, as the acoustics of the concert hall were not
as easily controlled as those of a good studio.
cites the singing of Sarah Ogden Gunning, from the Kentucky mining
region, as an example. The influence of this style also extends into
bluegrass music and is evident, for example, in the album Bill Monroe
and his Bluegrass Boys: 16 All Time Greatest Hits, Columbia, CS
A reading of Oliver (1960) and Malone (1968) has given me
this impression. They provide many illustrations of these
complementary thematic concerns.
- Music From Big Pink,
Capitol, SKAO 2955, Aug. 1968.
- The Band, Capital STAO 132,
- Stage Fright, Capital SW 425. 4. Cahoots, Capital SMAS
- Moondog Matinee, Capital SW 11214.
- Rock of Ages, Capital
SABB 11045 (two records).
Lyrics: The Band and Music From Big Pink
(Dwarf Music, 1969).
|1970|| ||"Music: Down to
Old Dixie and Back," Time. Jan. 12, 1970, 44.|
- Gillett, Charlie
|1972|| ||The Sound of the City: The Rise of Rock and Roll. New York: Dell,
- Gleason, Ralph
|1971|| ||"Review: The Band," in Rolling Stone Record
Review. New York: Pocket Books, 472.|
- Grissim, John
|1971|| ||Country Music:
White Man's Blues. New York: Paperback Library, 4.|
- Kooper, A1
|1971|| ||"Review: Music From Big Pink," in Rolling Stone Record Review. New
York: Pocket Books, 467470.|
- Landau, Jon
|1972|| ||"The Band: 'It's a
Restless Age'," in It's Too Late to Stop Now: A Rock and Roll Journal, Jon Landau. San Francisco: Straight Arrow, 114-119.|
- Lomax, Alan
|1959|| ||"Folk Song Style," American Anthropologist, Vol. LXI, Dec. 1959,
- Malone, Bill
|1968|| ||Country Music USA: A Fifty Year
History. Austin: University of Texas Press, 11.|
- Marx, Leo
Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in
America. New York: Oxford University Press, 5-11.|
- Mellers, Wired
|1972|| ||"Bob Dylan: Freedom and Responsibility," in Bob Dylan: A
Restrospective, Craig McGregor, ed. New York: Morrow, 398.|
|1960|| ||The Meaning of the Blues. New York: Collier.|
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