Notes by Peter VineyAs usual, I've tried to assemble as much as I can from various sources, whether I agree with them or not. At least virtually all the comments are then in one place.
Copyright © Peter Viney 2000
Canadian cold front, moving in ...
So, to start with that chorus line, Canadian cold front moving in ... I always interpreted this as a reference to an alien force moving in, rather than a description of Canadian weather from someone who saw themself as living in Canada.
The story behind the song
AcadiaThe French colony of Acadia (French Acadie ) was founded in 1604. It comprised Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, as well as parts of present-day Quebec. It extended into what is now Maine, and Pentagoet, the Acadian capital from 1670-74 was near Castine, Maine. The French must have arrived on a gentle summer's day. Dictionaries all say Acadia is a Micmac Indian word, but I always assumed it was named from Arcadia - a place of rural bliss, as in Arcadian paintings of the Renaissance. Perhaps the Anglo-Saxon settlers were more realistic, or arrived in less clement weather, because they chose to call the central area Nova Scotia, or New Scotland. Planes from Britain to any part of the East coast of America overfly it, and my view from 37,000 feet (I'm an avid ground watcher) places the British description of the topography as accurate. But the first British settlers in the area were Scottish and until 1701, though England and Scotland shared a monarch, they were officially separate countries.
The North America of the early 18th century was divided between the English speaking colonies which became the original thirteen United States plus Newfoundland; the French-speaking colonies in New France (present-day Quebec and the area that is now Ontario, plus the whole Mississippi Valley), the French colonies of Acadia and Louisiana; and Spanish territories in Florida, Texas, the South-West and right up the West Coast. Borders were vague. The division between what became the USA and Canada would not have been predictable.
The border areas were disputed and dangerous, as the British and French tried to forge alliances with the Native Americans. This was played out in 'Last of the Mohicans' territory. It has fascinated me since I was a first year student of American Literature. Some doubtlessly wise authority believed literature should be studied chronologically, so the first year led us extremely slowly from the Puritan poets via Benjamin Franklin to James Fenimore Cooper and Washington Irving. It was the second year before we experienced any genuinely major writers, Hawthorne and Melville. Set amidst such a mind-numbingly dull menu of Jonathan Edwards and Cotton Mather, Fenimore Cooper shone, and we were set to read all five Hawkeye novels. Being young and ill-aquainted with the realities of academia I was foolish enough to actually read them.
Acadia had a troubled history. As early as 1613 the British had destroyed Port Royal (now Annapolis Royal). The British claimed Nova Scotia from 1621 to 1632, and again from 1654 to 1670. They finally captured Nova Scotia in 1710, and the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht awarded it to Britain, while the French retained Cape Breton Island and Ile St Jean (Prince Edward Island) until 1763. Halifax was founded in 1749, and soon had a comparatively large English-speaking population of 4000, nearly all ex-New Englanders. Someone must have remembered Cromwell's idea of settling Scottish Protestants into Irish Catholic areas as a control mechanism, German and Swiss Protestants were invited to settle in Lunenburg, until someone had a better plan.
When the Seven Years War ended in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris, New France was ceded to Britain. Some Acadians were allowed to return, and today about one-eighth of the population of Nova Scotia is of Acadian descent. Offers of free land attracted immigrants from New England, who were around one half of the population by the time of the American revolution. During the revolution some 35,000 loyalists relocated there from the thirteen colonies. The town of Shelburne was established in 1783 by 10,000 fleeing loyalists, who later dissipated through the province.
LongfellowThe American poet, Longfellow, describes the deportation of the Acadians and their trek to Louisiana in the epic poem Evangeline (1849). The Band's song Evangeline of course also refers to "Evangeline from the Maritimes". The facts are stated in a "Prefaratory Note" (sic) by Longfellow, and these are as much history as Robertson would have needed:
In the year 1713, Acadia, or as it now named, Nova Scotia, was ceded to Great Britain by the French. The wishes of the inhabitants seem to have been little consulted in the change, and they with great difficulty were induced to take oathes of allegiance to the British government. Some time after this, war having again broken out between the British and French in Canada, the Acadians were accused of having assisted the French, from whom they were descended and connected by many ties of friendship, with provisions and ammunition at the siege of Beau Séjour. Whether the accusation was founded on fact or not, has not been satisfactorily ascertained: the result however was most disastrous for the primitive, simple-minded Acadians . The British government ordered them to be removed from their homes and dispersed throughout the other colonies, at a distance from their much-loved land. This resolution was not communicated to the inhabitants till measures had been matured to carry it into immediate effect: when the British governor of the colony; having issued a summons calling the whole people to a meeting, informed them that their lands, tenements and cattle of all kinds were forfeited to the British crown, that he had orders to remove them in vessels to distant colonies, and that they must remain in custody until their embarkation. 
Like to a gypsy camp, or a leaguer after a battle
... and a few lines later:
But on the shores meanwhile the evening fires had been kindled
And the departing Acadians watch their village burn from the sea. It's worth a lengthier quote:
Many a weary year had passed since the burning of Grand-Pré
Longfellow, whatever his status in poetic fashion, has a rhythm and musicality that has inspired composers. Mike Oldfield once ventured an interesting recording of Hiawatha. Robertson's friend Neil Diamond also wrote a song called Longfellow Serenade in 1974. 
Canada to New OrleansStoryville, and the interviews surrounding it show that the journey from Canada to the Southern States was the turning point in Robbie Robertson's young life. The tale of people who made the same journey, who travelled from Canada to New Orleans encapsulates this.
Matt KennedyThe French colony of Louisiana was under-exploited. The French had always found the sugar islands of the Caribbean to be vastly more profitable colonies than the mainland. They even refused to swap the whole of Canada for Guadeloupe in 1763. In 1721 the population of New Orleans and the surrounding area totalled just 420 people, and even by 1745 there were only 3200 settlers, holding 2000 slaves.  It was the influx of the dispossessed Acadians in the late 1750s that jump-started the colony. The word "Cajun" comes from "Acadian". However, the original settlers of New Orleans in 1717 were mainly French-Canadian rather than French from France itself. French Canada was already 100 years old at the time. Which is why Robbie's dispossessed Acadians have kin living south of the border. Louisiana fell under Spanish control from 1763 to 1800, when it returned to Napoleon's France. Then in 1803 it was sold to the United States in The Louisiana Purchase.
BackgroundI'm going to leave this all to Matt Kennedy:
Historical accuracy?I would not deny that Robbie Robertson skilfully created a lyric and melody that expressed the emotional truth of what happened, and expressed the spirit of the people. That's not the same as historical truth. Shakespeare's "Richard III" is bad history, but good art. On the other hand, "Braveheart", "The Patriot" and "U-571" are bad history and bad art.
Robbie RobertsonPedantic? Moi? But the song (and the quote above) contains some bad history. The oath of allegiance and the subsequent tragic expulsions of Acadians took place in 1755 and 1758, while there are references in the song to "what went down on the the Plains of Abraham"  where the British General James Wolfe defeated the French under The Marquis de Montcalm in 1759. Both Wolfe and Montcalm received fatal wounds in the battle. The Acadians were expelled as a precautionary measure before the war (1756-1763) got going, not as a result of it. The Treaty that was broken in the song should be the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, not the 1763 Treaty of Paris. It begins:
The war was over and the spirit was broken
Which puts the starting point at the end of a war (1713 or 1763), which it wasn't. But this image makes for a much better story, so (like the "film version" of a book) it starts by painting a picture of a defeated nation that sets the mood. The new reality might convey the message better than the simple facts.
Not only that, Levon sings (Robbie's anachronistic words):
We had kin
What border? In 1755 North America did not consist of the United States and Canada. There were fourteen independent British colonies (the thirteen plus Nova Scotia), New France (i.e. Canada) and Newfoundland. There wasn't "a border" till the Revolutionary War / War of Independence, so there was no reason to think of south or north of it. Nova Scotia sent four representatives to the Continental Congress, wavered, then decided not to join the USA, leaving thirteen. If you think back to the time, Nova Scotia might have become part of the USA, or modern Maine might have become part of what is now Canada. The border between New Brunswick and Maine remained in dispute until 1842.  The map of settlement left a large (though decreasing) unexploited gap between the English colonies and the French ones. The fact that there were two million English speakers to 70,000 French speakers was most significant.
Benteen pointed out in the Guestbook that the Acadian farmer is singing retrospectively about the border. Fair enough, a song's not a history lesson. But maybe Robbie missed out on having Levon drive him to the library, as he did for The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down. The theme of "Acadian Driftwood" remains the same whether the events were after the Seven Years War or before it.  In the 1750s there must have been a border, though probably vague and unmarked, between the British colonies and the French , a border that persisted at its southern end until the Louisiana Purchase some 50 years after the expulsion of the Acadians. The Indian tribes survived in the gap between the two.
I also recall Robertson Davies "Murther & Walking Spirits" where the party of loyalists flee New York and head up the river towards Canada. They definitely had a concept of a border between the thirteen colonies and those areas which hadn't signed up for independence - because they were thinly settled and not yet self-governing.
Hoskyns says the song was inspired by a show Robbie had seen in Montreal, Acadie, Acadie, so perhaps any inaccuracies can be traced to that. Robertson lived in Montreal briefly between Woodstock and California. It's also possible that the conquest of New France (=Quebec) is being confused with the Acadian deportations several years earlier.
The Lyrics in detail
Verse oneRobbie is back in the first person narration historical story. The song utilises the Band's trademark swapping of lead vocalists to good effect. Whether it's three singers telling one man's story, or whether we're switching between narrators is irrelevant. I feel the latter, but then it emphasises that the stories are the same. Richard sings the more narrative passages, Rick (I think) takes the ice-fishing one, Levon has the more personal "farmer" ones. The pattern is one for half a verse, another completes the second half, then all three sing the chorus.
The war was over and the spirit was broken
See above (Which war?). The mood though is of defeat, and the hills are smoking behind a departing army. It comes directly from Longfellow:
Many a weary year had passed since the burning of Grand-Pré
The ships are sinking from view over the horizon, a common enough nautical image, but the word incorporates the idea of sinking below the waves, declining, coming to an end. Rendezvous is ironic, whether intentionally or not, in that it's a word of French origin. The French government has waged a futile campaign against loan words, or "franglais". English has been more robust in simply adopting as many foreign words as it can, with rendezvous being a major example. The word gives a French air, while being common in English. It's a mark of French culture (here sinking) which has been left on the victorious English speakers. It's important to remember that it's English speakers, not the English. George Washington was a colonel in the British army fighting the French, and most of the combatants were to become Americans within twenty years. The ships are the British convoy formed to deport the Acadians.
Then Levon takes over:
They signed a treaty and our homes were taken
The treaty, presumably the 1763 treaty which ended the French & Indian war, actually came years after the expulsion - unless he refers to earlier treaties. The impersonal "they" is used to refer to unseen government agencies. The simple guy is just trying to raise a family, finding himself defined as the enemy of his own country, now that ownership has changed. Or it could be more complex according to Douglas Fetherling:
Fetherling misquotes the line. The singer is not the enemy of what went down, but he ended up (=became) the enemy over (=because of) what went down.
The Plains of Abraham
I agree with Bill Munson about the "plains of Abraham" not being a reference of any religious significance. The field where the battle was fought belonged to a farmer called Abraham Martin (or Machte) and the name was just the Plains of Abraham. When I was at school in Britain in the late 50s / early 60s, Wolfe in Canada and Clive in India were emphasized as two of the major figures in world history, on a par with Columbus and Napoleon. This was taught in classrooms adorned with world maps where large blobs of pink indicated the British Commonwealth. We learnt how Wolfe's troops had bravely scaled the Heights of Abraham to reach The Plains, repeating a feat that Wolfe had also achieved at the Battle of Louisbourg against the Acadians in 1758. We learnt the soundbite AND the famous last words (Soundbite: "Don't fire till you see the whites of their eyes"; Famous last words: "I die contented").
Robbie Robertson is fond of double references, and I think David is right in saying there's some indentification with wandering tribes - Mohawks, Jews, Acadians and also the references to a gypsy tail wind (or tale).
Acadian driftwood, Gypsy tail wind
The lyrics on site have the chorus as:
Acadian driftwood, gypsy tail wind
Others hear this as:
Acadian driftwood, gypsy tale ...
Both are explicable - a gypsy tail wind presumably "roams" therefore altering the ship's passage to and fro. The Acadians became nomadic.
The lyrics on site definitely have a couple of errors. There's an "and" printed before "Some stayed on ..." which I don't register, and I hear Levon singing "We worked in the sugar fields ..." while the lyrics have "I've worked in the sugar fields ..." The lyrics have "Sailing out of the gulf ..." and I think it's "Sailed out of the gulf ..." None of these are important, but they bring up this question of how accurate the sources are.
The vocal has a definite pause after gypsy tale/tail, and I wouldn't rule out this deliberate play:
Gypsy tale ... (fooled you) winds (oh, so it must have been tail, not tale).
It's not the first time Robbie Robertson has used the nature of song for word play / deliberate enigma.
I mentioned the Canadian cold front before.
Douglas FetherlingI don't think he's right at all - it's an image of cold winds of change from Canada, though a reference to that typical weather forecast fits with the suddenly modern references to "my turf" and "what went down."
What a way to ride, what a way to go seems to refer back to being blown around and off course by the erratic wandering tail wind from the north, driving them south.
Verse twoRichard (singing in the third person):
Then some returned to the motherland
True, some returned to France. Whether the high command is the British who deported them, or the French who signed away their homeland (preferring to keep the sugar riches of Guadaloupe) is ambiguous. But the indominatble farmers, some of them at least, stayed put.
Levon (singing in the first person):
We had kin livin' south of the border
The general story switches back to the individual one. The kin south of the border were the Acadians who'd settled New Orleans a few years earlier. Theirs is an invitation. (I don't think it's worth investigating how likelythe device of a letter would have been in those days). Pull up your stakes is a great phrase.
Verse threeThe verse falls into two parts again, describing two incidents. And now Rick Danko takes over as the lead voice.
Fifteen under zero when the day became a threat
The first incident is a picture of life in Acadie in winter. Ice fishing doesn't feature as a pleasurable pastime, but something that has to be done repetitively for subsistence. As this repetition makes him want to leave his home, we assume that ice fishing is not normal, so much as a sign of poverty. I'm not sure how cold fifteen under zero is, I guess it depends whether you're working in modern Canadian (Celsius) or modern American (Fahrenheit)! Whichever, no wonder the day becomes a threat.
Sailed out of the gulf headin' for Saint Pierre
Saint Pierre et Miquelon is still a French colony 15 miles off the coast of Newfoundland. All I could find out about it is that it changed hands between the British and French several times before becoming permanently French in 1816, and that the population of 6500 has not increased over the last century. I suppose it was a French speaking staging post / temporary refuge. The Gulf should be the Gulf of St Lawrence, which would figure. If you were leaving from the east coast of Nova Scotia for St Pierre you wouldn't go through it, but the main British garrison at Halifax was on the east. From the west coast of Nova Scotia or Prince Edward Island it also works, though not from Longfellow's Grand Pré where the route would take them through the Bay of Fundy to another gulf, the Gulf of Maine.
The Acadians got no solace from the English-speaking colonies in their journey. These might be coastal areas in Nova Scotia, but I'd imagine it means the coastal areas as they passed the America colonies heading for Louisiana. It sounds like the plight of refugees from The Balkans passing through Europe today.
Check back to Longfellow and you get the wind blowing from the tail, you get the coast of Newfoundland and you get the unfriendly inhabitants of the places they passed.
Far asunder, on separate coasts the Acadians landed
Verse fourIt falls into two again.
Everlasting summer filled with ill-content
I'm not too confident on this one. There are two interpretations. Both work.
First: The government of Nova Scotia literally had Acadians walking in chains. The summer would have been the easiest time to round-up the farmers, and it was no longer their "turf" so there was no reason to stay in Acadie.
Second: This links to the next section where the Acadian is in Louisiana. For an Acadian, the heat down there would be everlasting summer. But Louisiana isn't their "turf" and the everlasting summer isn't their season - they're people of the north. And there's no reason to remain there. I don't see where the walking in chains fits, unless it's a reference back to Acadie or they were treated like slaves in the south. The daily toil of 18th century indentured servants was little different from slavery, except importantly that they could see an end to their servitude, and the race issue led them to be chosen as overseers.
Levon is chosen as the voice of the one who worked in the south.
We worked in the sugar fields up from New Orleans
This either links from the first section and continues the theme, or contrasts. Ever green could be one word or two, and for a farmer life as well as fields could be "ever green" when things weregoing well. Whatever, it didn't work out in New Orleans and they decide to return north.
The French sectionThe lyrics must have been vital to require two translators from someone with a French-Canadian family. There was some dispute in the Guestbook over the printed French lyrics (which suggests they aren't from a Song book), and they were amended. They now stand as:
Sais tu, A-ca-di-e, j'ai le mal du pays
"makes tears in the sun" is an ambiguous one. Snow melts and forms tears, an image of the snows of Acadia. Or the memory of your snow brings tears to my eyes (here) in the sun (of Louisiana). I'd ignore my French teachers' constant advice, if I had to translate it, and carry the distinction between vous / tu into English, on the grounds that while it was already rapidly dying by the 1760s, isolated and more conservative communities retained a thou / you distinction. But Thou knowest would look completely pretentious in the translation line!
So the Acadian returns home.
The music tries to create a French-Canadian feel, with accordion, bagpipes and piccolo. The piccolo has a military, tin-whistle feel. They added Byron Berline on fiddle.
Robbie RobertsonRobbie's acoustic guitar blends into the song well, and part of the problem with The Last Waltz version is the switch to electric. Northern Lights, Southern Cross was always Garth's album, and it's the levels and references that he's put throughout that make the song.
Overall impressionsOpinions differ wildly. Barney Hoskyns finishes Across The Great Divide with a "very personal selection" of the "very best of The Band." It's number one.
Guinness Encylopedia of Popular Music
But there's an opposite viewpoint:
My own opinion changed while compiling this. It was a song I'd always loved, but given a remote control, Northern Lights and ten minutes only, I'd select Jupiter Hollow first, and It Makes No Difference second. Give me fifteen minutes, and it's there. Third choice. Repeated listening made me feel it's brilliant, but self-conciously brilliant. He's trying hard to recreate his "historical narrative" pieces in a new setting, and I believe it's heartfelt. On Cahoots he tried too hard and fell flat on his face. Here? No, he did it superbly, but the effortless grace of The Band isn't there. The effort, and the craft reveal themselves in a way they don't on The Band.
It's a message song, and I don't usually like message songs. This one resonates more now than it did in 1975. Recently in London, there were Kosovars selling bottled water from tubs of ice on a street corner. What was suspicious was that they had at least ten different brands, and all the seals looked odd. Nobody was buying. They get moved on, but they just re-appear at the next corner.
A couple of gypsy women were sitting on the pavement a little further along Oxford Street begging with the usual comatose children stretched across their laps, probably drugged. Five years ago beggars with children were unknown on the streets of London. Now they're everywhere as the displaced of Europe turn up at the doors of the rich, and they look foreign, too. People get irritated, resentful, uncomfortable, aggressive about this phenomenon. People were muttering about the lack of any police presence to move them on.
Even Queen Elizabeth has complained that the smell of cooking onions from illegal Albanian hot-dog vendors is invading Buckingham Palace. It seems that the police can move them on for trading in salmonella sausages on the streets of London, but the laws don't cover Royal Parks. And the area adjacent to the Palace is a Royal Park, and full of tourists, and the vendors are immune from those who would move them on. Prince Andrew, so the tabloids say, was so enraged by the smell that he went out one morning and moved them on himself.
When I got back home, my local paper had a report about a group of travellers (PC speak for English gypsies) who were camped out on some public football pitches for the third time in three years. All the usual fears were expressed. They're accused of leaving human excrement all over the playing fields, having savage dogs and expensive cars, theft rates go up in the neighbourhood etc. And it takes ten days to get the paperwork done before the police can move them on (and they know this).
And Acadian Driftwood started playing in my head:
Nothin' to declare. All we had was gone
Studio albumsNorthern Lights, Southern Cross (1975)
CompilationsAnthology II (1978)
To Kingdom Come (1989) 2 CDs
The Collection (1992) (Castle)
Across The Great Divide box set (1994) 3 CDs
The Shape I'm In: The Very Best of The Band (1998)
BootlegsTears of Grief (Greek Theatre, Los Angeles, 1976)
Take A Load for Free (The Paladium, New York, 1976)
The Complete Last Waltz 3 CDs (+ Joni Mitchell / Neil Young, 1976)
The Greek Theatre show was 25 August 1976. The guitar chords are chunky but dominating and messy, as is the whole arrangment. I had a few moment's doubt as to whether the "ice-fishing" verse was Rick or Richard on the original track, but this makes it clear- Rick at full exuberance dancing around the melody.
The Paladium show on 18 September 1976 was also an FM broadcast and has been cited as their best ever live performance. But on this song, Richard's voice is shaky and the first couple of lines are messed up. They take it too fast, even faster than LA, where it was already faster than the original, as if they're in a hurry to get it over. The balance is pretty bad with the accordion competing with the lead vocals. It goes straight into The Genetic Method, which is an uneasy combination.
It's often been said that the omission of the song from the released The Last Waltz is the greatest fault of the set. This is based on admiration for the song rather than sensible assessment of the performance.
Brian HintonIt's also true that Mitchell and Young made a fine mess of the first chorus before settling down, which would have meant major over-dubbing. Richard Manuel's voice is gritty and rough, which does the mood no harm, but coming as it did after Caravan, they sound exhausted and washed-out. Like a few other great Band songs, it's not ideal for live performance. Garth proves the exception as ever with a wonderful accordion solo.